The Impact of the Convergence of Catholic State Interests in the Empire and Developments in the Empire
This article discusses the impact of the convergence of Catholic state interests in the empire, particularly on Denmark. It covers the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and the developments in the empire, including the Edict of Restitution and the military efforts led by Albrecht von Wallenstein.
Table of Contents
- The Challenges Faced by the Catholic Habsburgs
- The Election of Ferdinand of Styria as King of Bohemia
- The Defenestration of Prague and the Rise of Elector Frederick V
- The Catholic Victory at the Battle of White Mountain
- The Establishment of Catholicism in Bohemia and Moravia
- Repression in Other Areas of the Empire
- Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and the Partnership with the Habsburgs
- The Danish King Christian IV and the Developments in the Empire
- The Implications of the Edict of Restitution for the Empire
- The Military Efforts led by Albrecht von Wallenstein
Q: What were the challenges faced by the Catholic Habsburgs under Emperor Matthias?
A: The Catholic Habsburgs faced challenges from Protestant leagues such as the Protestant Union. With support from England and the Dutch but no backing from France, Brandenburg, or Saxony, the Protestant Union weakened and collapsed in 1621. Meanwhile, Archduke Matthias’s election as Emperor did little to reduce the potential for confrontation in his Austrian lands.
Q: Who was elected king of Bohemia after Archduke Matthias’s death?
A: Archduke Ferdinand of Styria was elected king of Bohemia after Archduke Matthias’s death. With a secret treaty with Spain in hand, Matthias summoned the Bohemian Diet, which reluctantly elected Ferdinand as king of Bohemia on June 1617.
Q: What was the Defenestration of Prague?
A: The Defenestration of Prague in May 1618 was an orchestrated act of rebellion from a minority of desperate nobles who sought to oust the emperor’s representatives who were replacing Protestant pastors with Catholic priests on crown lands.
Q: Who accepted the offer to be the new king of Bohemia after Ferdinand was deposed?
A: Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate accepted the offer to be the new king of Bohemia in August 1619 after Ferdinand was deposed. However, Frederick was recognized as king in Bohemia only by Denmark, Sweden, Venice, and the Dutch Republic.
Q: What was the result of the Catholic forces’ victory at the battle of White Mountain?
A: The Catholic forces were successful at the battle of White Mountain in November 1620, and Bohemian rebel leaders were executed the following year as Ferdinand used the expropriations to reward his supporters and strengthen the power of the Habsburg state.
Q: What was established in Bohemia and Moravia after the battle of White Mountain?
A: In 1620, a “Renewed Constitution” was proclaimed in Bohemia and Moravia that established Catholicism as the sole religion and made the Bohemian crown hereditarily Habsburg. This led to over 150,000 Bohemians choosing exile.
Q: How did Emperor Ferdinand tailor the repression to local environments in other areas of the empire?
A: In other areas, such as Silesia and Lower Austria, Emperor Ferdinand tailored the repression to local environments, offering personal religious freedom to a minority of nobles in Lower Austria but implementing confessional absolutism in Upper Austria.
Q: What was the result of the uprising in Hungary periodically assaulted by Bethlen Gábor on Ferdinand’s rule?
A: Bethlen Gábor periodically assaulted Ferdinand’s rule until his death in 1629. Duke Maximilian of Bavaria helped Ferdinand crush the Protestant forces and was rewarded with the Upper Palatinate and the Electoral title. Wittelsbach Bavaria became a strategic partner with the Habsburgs, and the Upper Palatinate was re-Catholicized. The Protestant nobility faced expulsion or fines for non-compliance.
Q: Who became king of Denmark in 1596?
A: Christian IV of Denmark became king in 1596 and launched ambitious projects, creating new towns, founding new industries, and sponsoring exploration to Greenland and the Far East.
Q: What was the Edict of Restitution?
A: The Edict of Restitution was an edict issued by Emperor Ferdinand that threatened (Protestant) possessors of fifteen bishoprics in northern Germany as well as the occupants of 500 wealthy monasteries across northern and central Germany. The scope for Habsburg ecclesiastical patronage with which to cajole princes and territories to do the emperor’s bidding was immense.
Q: Who led the new army sponsored by Ferdinand?
A: Ferdinand sponsored a new army, led by Albrecht von Wallenstein, who had profited from imperial expropriations and currency debasement in Bohemia. Hans de Witte, a Flemish Calvinist, managed the financing and supply contracts for Wallenstein’s military effort.
The convergence of Catholic state interests in the empire and the developments in the empire had significant impacts on the political and religious landscape of the time. The rise of the Catholic Habsburgs and their partnership with Wittelsbach Bavaria shifted the balance of power in their favor, leading to the suppression of Protestant rebellion in various areas. The reign of Christian IV of Denmark also saw ambitious projects and expansion, but his relationship with Sweden was fraught and threatened by the Emperor’s Edict of Restitution. Wallenstein’s military efforts further solidified the power of the Habsburgs, but it also devastated various areas. Overall, the period was marked by a struggle for power between Protestants and Catholics, which ultimately ended in the dominance of the latter.