The Impact of the Collapse of the Soviet Union on Africa and Europe
The collapse of the Soviet Union had a significant impact on Africa and Europe. African countries lost their protector and became vulnerable to the globalized economy, leading to unrest and conflicts. In Europe, the end of the Cold War brought high expectations for lasting peace and prosperity, but war quickly returned with ethnic conflicts in Yugoslavia. The Bosnian War, which lasted from 1992 to 1995, resulted in a minimum of 100,000 deaths and forced two million people to be displaced.
Table of Contents
- The impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union on Africa
- The failure of Europe to end war without the United States
- The ethnic conflicts in Yugoslavia
- The Bosnian War and atrocities committed
- The role of international pressure in the end of the war
Q: How did the collapse of the Soviet Union impact African countries?
A: With the loss of their protector, African countries became vulnerable to the globalized economy, which led to economic disparities, disaffection, and ethnic resentment. This vulnerability resulted in unrest and conflicts throughout the continent.
Q: What role did Mikhail Gorbachev play in Africa during this time?
A: Mikhail Gorbachev played an essential role in promoting peace and helping reform the African National Congress in South Africa during this time.
Q: Why did war return to Europe after the end of the Cold War?
A: The end of the Cold War brought high expectations for lasting peace and prosperity in Europe. However, war quickly returned with ethnic conflicts in Yugoslavia fueled by rising economic disparities, disaffection, and ethnic resentment. The failure to establish a durable post-war settlement without relying upon the United States once again highlighted Europe’s incapacity to end war on its own soil.
Q: How did nationalism play a role in the conflict between Serbia and Croatia?
A: The rise of nationalism and state-sponsored media in Belgrade and Zagreb led to mutual hatred between Croats and Serbs. Franjo Tudjman, president of Croatia, appealed to the unity of ethnic Croats inside and outside Croatian borders. Serbs in Croatia were anxious for their future, and ethnic cleansing was perpetrated against Muslims, the main victims of the conflict.
Q: What were the atrocities committed during the Bosnian War?
A: The Bosnian War involved a spiral of atrocities and ethnic cleansing committed by all sides in the conflict. Ethnic cleansing was used to force Muslims from their homes, with terror tactics that included killing, rape, and destruction of property. The worst atrocity was committed in the town of Srebrenica, where 8,000 men and boys were systematically massacred by Serbian forces in July 1995.
The collapse of the Soviet Union had far-reaching consequences that impacted Africa and Europe. The loss of the Soviet Union as a protector left African countries vulnerable to the globalized economy, leading to conflicts and unrest. In Europe, the end of the Cold War brought high expectations for permanent peace and prosperity, but war quickly returned with ethnic conflicts in Yugoslavia. The Bosnian War, with its atrocities and forced displacements, was a tragic consequence of this renewed conflict. Ultimately, international pressure played a crucial role in putting an end to the war and finding territorial solutions to end the violence.