The Impact of European Wars on the Emergence of English as a World Language
The article delves into the impact of European wars on the emergence of English as a world language. Specifically, it discusses the British victory in the American region, which marked the beginning of English as the world language, the decline of monarchies such as France and the rise of Russia as a dominant power. The article also talks about Catherine the Great’s “Greek Plan,” the Treaty of Versailles, and England’s universal, bureaucratic, professional, and public fiscal system.
Table of Contents
- Catherine the Great’s Impact on European Wars
- The Role of France in the Second Hundred Years War
- English Public Finance: A Fundamental Ingredient for Success
- The Treaty of Versailles: A Turning Point in European History
Q: How did Catherine the Great’s “Greek Plan” impact European wars?
A: Catherine the Great’s “Greek Plan” proposed the partition of the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of two new states, which would be Russian puppets. These proposals were seen as unrealistic in Vienna until Catherine announced the annexation of Crimea in April 1783, which outraged France and ended their centuries-long relationship with the Ottoman Turks. This move angered France, which demanded the assistance of their Austrian ally, but Joseph was secretly allied with Catherine for two years. This further exacerbated tensions between France and Russia, leading to further conflicts.
Q: What was France’s policy during the Second Hundred Years War?
A: France’s policy during the Second Hundred Years War was to diminish the power of Great Britain and Russia, their countries on the periphery of Europe, to defend France’s traditional allies-Sweden, Poland, and the Turks-against the new breed of predators, led by Russia. France’s assistance to the Americans in their fight for independence against the British was a decisive battle that took place in the autumn of 1781 at Yorktown in Virginia. Without the assistance of the French and Spanish, the Americans could not have won their independence at the speed they did.
Q: What was the Treaty of Versailles and its impact on European history?
A: The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1783, recognized the independence of the United States of America, but Canada, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia remained British. France secured Tobago, a share in the Newfoundland fishing, and a few trading stations in Senegal and India. Crippled by debt and immobilized by political instability, Great Britain’s loss of America was seen as the first stage of a total dissolution of the British Empire. This treaty was a turning point in European history, marking the beginning of English as the world language and the decline of the French monarchy.
Q: What were the differences in public finance between England and France during the Second Hundred Years War?
A: The article discusses the differences in public finance between England and France during the Second Hundred Years War. England’s system was universal, bureaucratic, professional, and public, while France struggled with bankruptcy. The English Parliament controlled public expenditure and taxation, which funded war efforts. The main burden of taxation was customs and excise, benefiting from the expansion of commerce and consumer revolution of the eighteenth century. The number of revenue officers grew, and the English Excise bureaucratic system was more like a Max Weber idea of bureaucracy than any other European government agency. England’s fiscal system enjoyed the vital ingredient of trust, while France’s lacked funding, which led to bankruptcy.
Q: What was the impact of the Treaty of Teschen on European affairs and Catherine the Great?
A: The Treaty of Teschen in May 1779 was seen as a defeat for Joseph, as all of Bavaria had to be abandoned apart from a small area on the River Inn. This treaty represented the peak of Russian influence in Europe, as Russia had the final say in German affairs and helped to shape the peace settlement. Catherine the Great’s reward was becoming a guarantor of the status quo in the Holy Roman Empire, which allowed her to achieve parity with France and become the dominant foreign power in the Empire for the next ten years. This elevated Russia’s power while diminishing the power of France in European affairs.
In conclusion, European wars played a significant role in the emergence of English as a world language, with the British victory in the American region marking the beginning of this shift. The article also highlights the decline of monarchies such as France and the rise of Russia as a dominant power, as well as the importance of public finance in funding successful war efforts. The Treaty of Versailles, in particular, was a crucial turning point in European history, marking the decline of the French monarchy and the beginning of English as the world language.