The Art of Survival: A Q&A on the History of Northern Italy, Crusader States, and the Thirteenth Century
This article presents a Q&A text between an expert and a questioner discussing the history of northern Italy, Crusader States, and the thirteenth century. It covers various topics such as foreign policies, economic power, political and economic power, governance and political organization, Byzantine empire, great kingdoms, social structures, and many others.
Table of Contents
- The Rise of Northern Italy
- The Power Struggle in the Crusader States
- The Third Crusade and the Age of Cathedrals
- Social Structures in the Thirteenth Century
Questioner: Can you tell us about the rise of northern Italy?
Expert: The city-states of northern Italy co-ordinated their foreign policies to resist imperial threats and exercised territorial aggrandizement in the absence of imperial resurgence. Northern Italy’s economic power increased in the medieval world and acted as the entrepôt of goods from various regions, including the islands of Corsica and Sardinia caught in the political struggle between Genoa and Pisa.
Questioner: How did Sicily achieve political and economic power in medieval times?
Expert: Sicily achieved the height of political and economic power under the leadership of Roger II, William I, and William II.
Questioner: How did governance and political organization in Crusader States differ from north-western Europe?
Expert: The Crusader States adopted the style of governance and political organization typical of north-western Europe, with its fiefs, vassals, ties of homage and fealty, military support system based on knights’ service, and so on.
Questioner: Who were the Christians in the Crusader States and how did they form alliances?
Expert: The Christians included large numbers of Byzantines, who had disagreements with the Catholics but entered an alliance with the Maronites of the mountains of Lebanon.
Questioner: How did succession crises and internal strife affect the Crusader States?
Expert: The Crusader States faced numerous succession crises that sapped their ability to work together, but the internal strife in the Muslim world allowed them to survive.
Questioner: Can you tell us about the Byzantines?
Expert: The Byzantines’ failure to support the crusaders at Antioch during the First Crusade damaged their trustworthiness, and their price for renewing support was a concession of territory, causing a deadlock. However, they did intervene indirectly on the crusaders’ behalf, and a continuing alliance would have been useful.
Questioner: What led to the call for a new crusade and how was it received?
Expert: The fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade, and the failure of the Second Crusade in 1148 was due to the crusaders’ siege of Damascus, which was allied with Jerusalem against Zangī and Nūr al-Dīn’s growing power.
Questioner: How was the Third Crusade different from the previous ones?
Expert: In 1187, Saladin virtually annihilated the Christian forces at Hāttīn and went on to take Acre and then Jerusalem. Following the fall of Jerusalem, the aged Frederick Barbarossa and Henry II of England took the cross, and Philip Augustus of France joined them. The Third Crusade was a success, even though the German imperial army was less effective than those of the western kingdoms. Richard the Lionheart accomplished the most by settling old scores and avenging some dishonours en route.
Questioner: How did the Teutonic Knights become a military order?
Expert: In the Third Crusade, the Teutonic Knights were founded in 1190 and became a military order with hospitals and houses across Spain as well as female members. Their rule incorporated both hospitality and prescribed military activities. While initially intended as a welfare order for the German wounded and sick, they were involved in limited military activities and received approval from Pope Innocent III.
Questioner: What were the social structures like in the thirteenth century?
Expert: The principal occupations at the start of the thirteenth century were agricultural, with labourers having varying formal relationships to the land. In areas where villages were prevalent, it was common to hold property either freely by lease or servilely at the lords’ pleasure. Ecclesiastical holdings varied and lords employed people who were obligated by law or who freely hired themselves for agricultural labour. Specialisation in agricultural labour, animal husbandry, and domestic labour required specialised knowledge passed on in apprenticeship.
In conclusion, the history of northern Italy, Crusader States, and the thirteenth century presents an intriguing world that has a lot of value in contemporary times. By understanding the complexities and nuances of the past, we can learn valuable lessons that are applicable even today.