Realism in European Art and Literature
Realism emerged as a response to industrialization and the growth of a new middle class in Europe. It impacted the development of art and culture, literature, and even opera. Realist art and literature focused on both the comfortably off and the poor and exploited. Literary Realism was a broad European movement that also included playwrights such as August Strindberg and Henrik Ibsen. Realism even found its way into the highly artificial world of opera and influenced composers such as Giuseppe Verdi and Giacomo Puccini.
Table of Contents
- The rise of the gramophone, cinema, and Realism in art
- Realism in literature
- Realist opera and nationalism
- The revival of classical music and the symphony
The Rise of the Gramophone, Cinema, and Realism in Art
Q: What was the impact of the rise of the gramophone on society in Europe?
A: The rise of the gramophone in the early 20th century caused a sensation in Europe. With the ability to record and playback music, recordings by artists such as Enrico Caruso became popular, and music became more accessible to the masses.
Q: How did the cinema impact Europe after the Lumière brothers showed their first film in 1895?
A: The cinema became popular across Europe after the first film was shown by the Lumière brothers. The realism of photography and moving pictures had a significant impact on the development of art and culture.
Q: What painters used ordinary people, including working-class girls and prostitutes, as models?
A: Painters such as Gustave Courbet and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood used ordinary people, including working-class girls and prostitutes, as models. They painted social criticism and scenes of poverty through naturalistic approaches.
Realism in Literature
Q: What caused the emergence of Realism in literature?
A: Realism in literature emerged in response to industrialization and the growth of a new middle class in Europe. This allowed for the development of a new market for books, including Realist novels, which depicted the collectivity of society and explored the shifting relationships between various characters.
Q: What books are examples of Realist literature?
A: Realist literature often carried strong social criticism, as shown in works such as Oliver Twist, Bleak House, Hard Times, and Les Misérables. The Realist movement also gave rise to a new type of bourgeois novel that catered to an educated readership.
Realist Opera and Nationalism
Q: When did Realism find its way into opera and what impact did it have?
A: Realism found its way into opera in the late 19th century. Realist operas, such as Leoš Janáček’s Jenůfa and Georges Bizet’s Carmen, often caused scandals when first performed due to their everyday settings and working-class characters.
Q: What role did nationalism play in the development of Realist opera?
A: Nationalism played a significant role in the development of Italian opera, with patriotic songs gaining the status of modern folk melodies. Russian composers such as Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky and Tchaikovsky incorporated folk melodies into their music, while Jean Sibelius used his compositions to serve the Finnish struggle for national identity and independence from Russia.
The Revival of Classical Music and the Symphony
Q: What were standard forms of classical music and what happened to them?
A: Standard forms of classical music, such as symphonies and concerti, saw a revival with the construction of purpose-built concert halls and the cult of the virtuoso.
Q: What became the central expression of musical genius?
A: The symphony became the central expression of musical genius, with composers such as Anton Bruckner, Gustav Mahler and Jean Sibelius contributing to its dominance in the orchestral repertoire.
In conclusion, Realism had a significant impact on European art and culture. It emerged as a response to the changing social and economic conditions of the time and allowed artists and writers to explore the realities of everyday life. Realism found its way into many art forms, including literature and opera, and helped to shape the cultural landscape of Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.