Brexit and the Uncertain Future of Europe: An Expert Analysis

Brexit and the Uncertain Future of Europe: An Expert Analysis


Brexit, the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union, remains a significant topic in discussions about Europe’s future. This expert analysis delves into the factors that led to the Brexit Referendum and its aftermath. It also examines the instability, insecurity, and threats currently facing Europe and its quest for lasting peace, prosperity, and democracy. This analysis presents a comprehensive view of Europe’s past, present, and future, and provides insights into European identity, allegiances, and the potential for historical change.

Table of Contents

  • The Brexit Referendum and the Role of Immigration
  • The Campaign for Leaving and the Remain Campaign
  • The Consequences of Brexit for the UK and the EU
  • The Quest for Lasting Peace, Prosperity, and Democracy in Europe
  • The Challenges Europe Faces and its Uncertain Future


Q: What led to the Brexit Referendum?
A: The Brexit Referendum was primarily driven by the issue of immigration from the European Union. 69% of Britons believed that immigration was too high, and this sentiment was emphasised by campaigns for leaving the EU. David Cameron, then UK Prime Minister, promised the referendum as a means to blunt opposition to EU membership from Eurosceptics within his own party, and most experts believed that the public would ultimately vote to remain. However, the gamble backfired, and 51.9% of the 72.2% who voted opted to leave.

Q: What were the priorities of the campaigns for leaving and remaining?
A: The campaigns for leaving the EU emphasised regaining sovereignty and halting unwanted immigration, with the slogan “Take Back Control” resonating with voters. The Remain campaign primarily focused on dire economic consequences of leaving, but had no effective response to counter immigration concerns.

Q: What were the consequences of Brexit for the UK and the EU?
A: Following the referendum, Theresa May emerged as the new UK Prime Minister, with her appointment of three arch-Brexiteers to lead the negotiations leading many to believe that the outcome would be damaging to Britain and could even lead to the break up of the union between England and Scotland. The potential reopening of the nationality question in Ireland due to the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland was a concern. Brexit also led to soul-searching within the EU, as it faced lasting uncertainty and security due to its exposure to globalization.

Q: What are the current challenges facing Europe?
A: Europe currently faces instability, insecurity, and threats to its peace and prosperity from crises such as economic crisis, migration, terrorism, and great-power conflict. These challenges have shaken the foundations of European civilization, and although Europe has weathered the crises by 2017, they had not been overcome.

Q: How has NATO and the European Union contributed to lasting peace in Europe?
A: The establishment of NATO, the European Community and mutually assured destruction has paved the way for lasting peace by cementing Franco-German bonds of friendship, extending democratic principles, the rule of law, and the framework of international cooperation to much of Southern, Central and Eastern Europe. The shield of NATO and active American engagement were essential in retaining a strong military presence in Europe, which prevented the continent from being less stable and fragile.

Q: Has Europe created a genuine sense of European identity?
A: The European Union has failed to create a genuine sense of European identity, as citizens’ allegiance is still national rather than European. The illusive search for a European identity is in any case unnecessary.


In conclusion, the Brexit Referendum was a significant event in Europe’s recent history. Its consequences will be felt for a long time, not only in the UK but throughout Europe. The challenges facing Europe are substantial, and it is unclear which direction it will take in the future. The analysis of Europe’s past provides insights into the present, but historical change is subject to contingency, and the future is always open. Europe’s quest for lasting peace, prosperity, and democracy continues, and its success will depend on its ability to overcome its challenges and build a shared sense of identity.

Scroll to Top